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Social environment


Characteristics of the population affected by the Metro Line

In assessing Metro impacts on the population concerned it is an important viewpoint that Metro 4 will cross or connect very different districts of Budapest. That is why several regions or areas of different land utilisation are interlaced. Thus, the range of influence of the new Metro line will include the southern part of the historical centre on the Pest side.

However, the largest band to be involved is the so called central residential area in the City Centre. Thus, Metro line will have an influence on living estates, moreover, also in the zones where living and industrial functions are mixed. The above structural units also mean different area utilisation and function. Due to this fact, no uniform local society can be expected near the new metro line, only compact groups of larger or smaller local communities perform an area utilisation different from one another.

Population number and, consequently, population density will continuously decrease in the areas served by the future Metro line. Quite different processes will develop between population decrease in the Pest side city centre and that of the internal residential zone. Decrease of the residential function within the process of city development is in fact a natural process, however, a significant population decrease in the internal residential zone is associated with the depreciation and deterioration of the area.

Among both components of the natural reproduction of population the trend of live births is decreasing, and the death ratio is stagnating at a high level. In one of the ranges of influence of Metro 4, the rate of births is relatively low with respect to death rate. A negative migration balance is also characteristic to the area.

Within the range of influence, qualification and education level of the population is mostly higher on the Buda side and along the river embankment of Pest than on any other parts of the Capital City. Since Metro 4 will cross these areas, there are significant differences in respect of the population's education.

In what labour force markets are concerned, the population's activity was quite different in the range of influence of Metro 4 as early as in 1990. The ratio of active occupied population was above 50% in the housing estates of Buda side, while in several zones of the Buda and Pest side it did not even reach 40%.

Unemployment along the route of Metro 4 is the lowest in the 8th District. In Jzsefvros unemployment ratio is not only high, but its structure is more severe. Construction of the new Metro line will probably considerably facilitate both labour motion within the capital and the commuting to Budapest.

In the influence range of Metro 4, the southern part of the inner city preserved its high status, however, the values in the central residential zones are very low, which were further decreasing under the effect of some economic difficulties following democratic political transformations.

In certain areas of the range of influence of Metro 4 in Jzsefvros, the proportion of non-skilled and semi-skilled labour is above average, i.e. a concentration of the social layers of low status can be remarked. However, under the influence of the new Metro line a slow prestige increasing process can be expected.

On the contrary, on the Buda side with a social development much better for a long time, the new Metro line will promote the preservation of the existing social status, moreover, in some districts even its increase.

Situation of social services

In what the location of education institute is concerned in the range of influence of Metro 4, there are considerable territorial differences. In addition to the density of educational institutes on the Pest side, this density is much more lower on the Buda side. Moving upwards on the hierarchy of such institutes, the significance of the range of influence of Metro 4 is definitely increasing. Since the secondary schools of the range of influence are frequented from almost all parts of the capital city, good transport connections are indispensable. Travel of the students from the south-west sector of the agglomeration to the schools of the inner districts would be much easier by the new Metro line.

The passenger traffic on the future Metro line will considerably be influenced by the fact that almost half of universities and high schools in the capital city are located within the range of influence of Metro 4. This means nearly 20 higher educational institutes, thus, the improved approaching possibilities cannot be but appreciated by the students.

The number of various health institutions is nearly 20 in the range of influence of Metro 4. Their public transport accessibility will be quite easier from South Buda or from the connected sectors of the agglomeration. On the Buda side, Szent Imre hospital and the consulting institute in Ttnyi t on the Pest side will be much more accessible following the putting into operation of Metro 4.

Relation of public safety and Metro is specific, and in the environment approaching Metro area one can mostly reckon with such criminals and crimes which are induced by the mass presence of passengers. In case of Jzsefvros, with especially bad criminal indexes, one can expect a higher criminality in the Metro stations implemented in this area, however, the Metro police will hopefully extend its activity to the new line, as well, and will be able to counterbalance this effect.

Economic services

Construction and putting into operation of the new Metro line will induce such complex impacts on the urban environment (e.g. change of travel habits, migration within the Capital City, spatial motion of commercial-servicing functions, administration, educational, health, tourists' requirements) that may have a secondary impact in various areas of the city life.

The construction of the Metro section itself will cause unpleasant difficulties in the passenger traffic and commercial freight transport of the city district concerned, possibly to a considerable extent and for a long period.

It is obvious that the transport junctions with high passenger flow have an extreme attraction on the settlement of various retail servicing activities. Thus, the number of shops and buyers becomes less and less by moving off the transport-commercial center. Such commercial-service functions are expected to be considerably enriched near each Metro station, especially in Etele tr, which will receive transport junction functions much more important than earlier following the moving away of the Volnbusz bus station.

No special condensation whatsoever of financial institutions can be experienced along the future Metro line, so far. However, following its putting into operation the density of bank branches can increase, as well.

On the contrary, the Metro line envisaged will not significantly contribute to the tourist value of the capital city, except for the environment of Gellrt tr, since it has to connect to the metro network the areas with a less foreign tourist traffic. Thus, it can only slightly promote the undesirable concentration of the tourism in Budapest.